AMR epitomizes the wicked global challenges of sustainability that we face in the early 21st century.

At the GTGLab, we are interested in understanding how AMR and is influenced by social, governmental, and economic factors and, conversely, how the same factors are affected by AMR.

Our work uses an interdisciplinary and complex systems lens to explore these issues, with the goal being to support governance and policy-making that can address AMR from a One Health perspective over the long-term.

Over the past ten years, members of the group have worked in different areas related to the governance of AMR from the national and global perspectives including:

  • Global policy framing on AMR and the need for a social ecological frame
  • Institutional/regime complexity in the global governance AMR including the role of the United Nations Organization and other stakeholders
  • Intersectoral and multilevel governance
  • Role of international mechanisms (international law) including the applicability of the International Health Regulations to AMR
  • Monitoring and evaluation of the 2015 WHO Global Action Plan
  • Evaluation of the content of National Action Plans and their implementation
  • One Health surveillance
  • Operationalisation of social ecological resilience to AMR including the application of the planetary boundaries’ framework
  • Effectiveness and implementation of interventions
  • Incentives for innovation in antibiotic R&D
  • Supply and demand bottlenecks in the market for diagnostics related to AMR
  • Health system financing to support optimal prescribing
  • Relative cost-effectiveness of AMR-related prevention interventions
  • Misalignment of incentives in the supply chain of antibiotics for veterinary and farming use
  • Regulation of AMR-related diagnostics
  • Prioritizing amongst vaccines to help combat AMR
  • Optimizing pull incentive to better support antibiotic conservation over the longer-term
  • Lessons for AMR from COVID-19

Members of the group

  • Anaïs Léger DVM, DipECVPH
  • Chantal Morel PhD
  • Didier Wernli MD MA PhD

Projects and international collaboration

  • SESYNC pursuit ‘Living with resistance’ (2016-2017)
  • JPIAMR project ‘“Comparative assessment of social-ecological resilience and transformability to limit AMR in one health systems” (2018-2021)
  • SDC project with mapping of AMR actors in LMIC (SDC funding) (2020)
  • National policies on AMR (lead SPH at HKU) (2018-2020)


  • Léger, A., I. Lambraki, T. Graells, M. Cousins, P. J. G. Henriksson, S. Harbarth, C. Carson, S. E. Majowicz, M. Troell, E. J. Parmley, J. P. S. and D. Wernli (In press). “AMR-Intervene: a social ecological framework to capture the diversity of actions to tackle antimicrobial resistance from a One Health perspective ” J Antimicrob Chemother. In press.
  • Wernli, D., P. S. Jørgensen, E. J. Parmley, M. Troell, S. E. Majowicz, S. Harbarth, A. Léger, I. Lambraki, T. Graells, P. J. G. Henriksson, C. Carson, M. Cousins, G. Skoog Ståhlgren, C. V. Mohan, A. J. H. Simpson, B. Wieland, K. Pedersen, A. Schneider, S. J. Chandy, T. P. Wijayathilaka, J. Delamare-Debouteville, J. Vila, C. S. Lundborg and D. Pittet (In press). “Evidence for action: A One Health learning platform on interventions to tackle antimicrobial resistance.” Lancet Infect Dis. In press
  • Ogyu, A., O. Chan, J. Littmann, H. H. Pang, X. Lining, P. Liu, N. Matsunaga, N. Ohmagari, K. Fukuda and D. Wernli (2020). “National action to combat AMR: a One-Health approach to assess policy priorities in action plans.” BMJ Global Health 5(7): e002427.
  • Søgaard Jørgensen, P., C. Folke, P. J. G. Henriksson, K. Malmros, M. Troell, A. Zorzet, A. Aktipis, Z. Brown, Y. Carrière, S. Downes, R. R. Dunn, G. Epstein, G. B. Frisvold, D. Hawthorne, Y. T. Gröhn, G. T. Gujar, D. Jasovský, E. Y. Klein, F. Klein, G. Lhermie, D. Mota-Sanchez, C. Omoto, M. Schlüter, H. M. Scott, D. Wernli and S. P. Carroll (2020). “Coevolutionary Governance of Antibiotic and Pesticide Resistance.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 35(6): 484-494.
  • Lhermie, G., D. Wernli, P. S. Jørgensen, D. Kenkel, C. Y. C. Lin Lawell, L. W. Tauer and Y. T. Gröhn (2019). “Tradeoffs between resistance to antimicrobials in public health and their use in agriculture: Moving towards sustainability assessment.” Ecological Economics 166: 106427.
  • Wernli, D. (2019). Global governance of antimicrobial resistance: anatomy of a regime complex [PhD Dissertation], Global Studies Institute. University of Geneva.
  • Lhermie, G., D. Wernli, P. S. Jørgensen, D. Kenkel, L. W. Tauer and Y. T. Gröhn (2019). “Global resistance to antimicrobials and their sustainable use in agriculture.” The Lancet Planetary Health 3(3): e109-e110.
  • Jørgensen, P. S., A. Aktipis, Z. Brown, Y. Carrière, S. Downes, R. R. Dunn, G. Epstein, G. B. Frisvold, D. Hawthorne, Y. T. Gröhn, G. T. Gujar, D. Jasovský, E. Y. Klein, F. Klein, G. Lhermie, D. Mota-Sanchez, C. Omoto, M. Schlüter, H. M. Scott, D. Wernli, S. P. Carroll and Living with Resistance project (2018). “Antibiotic and pesticide susceptibility and the Anthropocene operating space.” Nature Sustainability 1(11): 632-641.
  • Wernli, D., S. Harbarth, N. Levrat, B. J. Cowling, M. Peiris, D. Pittet and K. Fukuda (2018). Roles, responsibilities and remit of United Nations’ organisations in relation to antimicrobial resistance: A joint evaluation prepared for the United Nations’ Interagency Coordination Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (IACG-AMR) subgroup 5 by the University of Geneva, Geneva University Hospitals and the University of Hong Kong
  • Léger, A., Stärk, K. D., Rushton, J., & Nielsen, L. R. (2018). “A one health evaluation of the University of Copenhagen Research Centre for control of antibiotic resistance.” Frontiers in veterinary science5, 194.
  • Jørgensen, P. S., D. Wernli, C. Folke and S. P. Carroll (2017). “Changing antibiotic resistance: sustainability transformation to a pro-microbial planet.” Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 25: 66-76.
  • Wernli, D., P. S. Jørgensen, C. M. Morel, S. Carroll, S. Harbarth, N. Levrat and D. Pittet (2017). “Mapping global policy discourse on antimicrobial resistance.” BMJ Global Health 2(2): e000378.
  • Wernli, D., P. S. Jorgensen, S. Harbarth, S. P. Carroll, R. Laxminarayan, N. Levrat, J. A. Rottingen and D. Pittet (2017). “Antimicrobial resistance: The complex challenge of measurement to inform policy and the public.” PLOS Medicine 14(8): e1002378.
  • Jorgensen, P. S., D. Wernli, S. P. Carroll, R. R. Dunn, S. Harbarth, S. A. Levin, A. D. So, M. Schluter and R. Laxminarayan (2016). “Use antimicrobials wisely.” Nature 537(7619): 159-161.
  • Wernli, D., T. Haustein, J. Conly, Y. Carmeli, I. Kickbusch and S. Harbarth (2011). “A call for action: the application of The International Health Regulations to the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.” PLoS Medicine 8(4): e1001022.
  • Wernli, D., T. Haustein and S. Harbarth (2011). “The European approach to antimicrobial resistance: success stories and challenges.” Global Health Europe Issue Briefs(February 2011).